香煙
大麻
電子煙
加味雪茄
水煙

所有類型的二手煙
都有害健康

你的風險正不斷提升

暴露於二手煙中的人在過去兩年中飆升

0%

暴露於大麻二手煙的
增加率*

0%

暴露於電子煙二手煙的
增加率*

超過50%的加州居民仍然暴露於煙草的二手煙之中*

California Department of Public Health, California Tobacco Control Program. Online California Adult Tobacco Survey, 2018. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Public Health, California Tobacco Control Program; 2018.

Lorem Ipsum

檢視來源

Vuong TD, Zhang X, Roeseler A. California Tobacco Facts and Figures 2019. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Public Health; May 2019.

檢視來源

暴露於二手煙的影響

請點選以下的不同危害,以了解在健康上會導致的嚴重後果

香煙的二手煙中有70種致癌化學物質。*

雪茄、加味雪茄及香煙的二手煙中,都含有致癌化學物質,例如鉛及苯。*

大麻的二手煙中含有致癌化學物質,例如鎘及鉻。*

電子煙的二手煙中含有致癌化學物質,例如甲醛及鎳。*

水煙的二手煙中含有幾種已知會導致肺癌、膀胱癌及口腔癌的有毒化學物質。*

來自香煙及加味雪茄的二手煙會導致肺部疾病。*

患有哮喘的兒童若暴露於二手煙中,可能會讓哮喘的發作更加頻繁且更加嚴重。*

兒童時期暴露於二手煙中,與成年後的肺臟疾病有關。*

電子煙的二手煙中含有高濃度的細微粒。若吸入這些細微粒可能會讓如哮喘等呼吸系統疾病更加嚴重。*

電子煙的二手煙中含有細微粒及超細微粒,這些微粒可以深入肺部並導致組織發炎。*

若暴露於二手煙中,二手煙會向大腦輸送足夠的尼古丁以改變其功能。*

暴露於大麻二手煙中的兒童,可檢測出 其體內含有四氫大麻酚(THC)成分。四氫大麻酚是一種可以改變大腦及神經系統功能的精神活性化學物質。*

來自香煙及加味雪茄的二手煙,可導致不吸煙者中風。*

水煙的二手煙中含有會導致動脈阻塞並因此造成中風的有毒物質。*

來自香煙及加味雪茄的二手煙會導致心臟病。*

根據新興科學顯示,大麻的二手煙會讓血管變硬及變狹窄,並因此導致心臟病發作。*

水煙的二手煙中含有毒化學物質,可造成動脈阻塞,並因此導致心臟病發作。*

癌症

 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Quitting smoking. cdc.gov. Page updated February 1, 2017. Accessed January 4, 2019

檢視來源

National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. Monograph 9: Cigars: Health Effects and Trends. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. February 1998.

檢視來源

Moir D, Rickert WS, Levasseur G, et al.  A comparison of mainstream and sidestream marijuana and tobacco cigarette smoke produced under two machine smoking conditions. Chem Res Toxicol. 2008;21:494-502. doi: 10.1021/tx700275p

檢視來源

California Department of Public Health, California Tobacco Control Program. State Health Officer’s Report on E-Cigarettes: A Community Health Threat. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Public Health; 2015.

檢視來源

危害肺臟

 

Goniewicz ML, Knysak J, Gawron M, et al. Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes. Tob Control. 2014;23(2):133–139. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2012-050859

檢視來源

Williams M, Villarreal A, Bozhilov K, Lin S, Talbot P. Metal and silicate particles including nanoparticles are present in electronic cigarette cartomizer fluid and aerosol. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e57987.

檢視來源

Sleiman M, Logue JM, Montesinos VN, et al. Emissions from Electronic Cigarettes: Key Parameters Affecting theRelease of Harmful Chemicals. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2016 Sep 6;50(17):9644-51. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b01741

檢視來源

Glantz SA. 9 chemicals identified so far in e-cig vapor that are on the California Prop 65 list of carcinogens and reproductive toxins [blog post]. UCSF Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education. Published July 20, 2013. Accessed August 19, 2019. 

檢視來源

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hookahs. cdc.gov. www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/tobacco_industry/hookahs/index.htm. Page reviewed January 17, 2018. Accessed September 19, 2019.

Xem mã nguồn

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014.

檢視來源

National Cancer Institute. Secondhand Smoke and Cancer. cancer.gov. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/tobacco/second-hand-smoke-fact-sheet. Reviewed December 4, 2018. Accessed May 15, 2019.

檢視來源

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke. cdc.gov. https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_smoke/health_effects/index.htm. Reviewed January 17, 2018. Accessed May 16, 2019.

檢視來源

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2006. 

檢視來源

Diver WR, Jacobs EJ, Gapstur SM. Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Childhood and Adulthood in Relation to Adult Mortality Among Never Smokers. Am J Prev Med. 2018;55(3):345-352. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2018.05.005.

檢視來源

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice; Committee on the Review of the Health Effects of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems; Eaton DL, Kwan LY, Stratton K, editors. Public Health Consequences of E-Cigarettes. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2018 Jan 23. doi: 10.17226/24952

檢視來源

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Particle pollution. cdc.gov. https://www.cdc.gov/air/particulate_matter.html. Reviewed April 1, 2014. Accessed August 22, 2019. 

檢視來源

Schripp T, Markewitz D, Uhde E, Salthammer T. Does e-cigarette consumption cause passive vaping? Indoor Air. 2013;23(1):25-31. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0668.2012.00792.x

檢視來源

Schober W, Szendrei K, Matzen W. Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) impairs indoor air quality and increases FeNO levels of e-cigarette consumers. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2014;217(6):628-37. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2013.11.003.

檢視來源

危害大腦

 

Brody AL, Mandelkern MA, London ED, et al. Effect of secondhand smoke on occupancy of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in brain. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011;68(9):953–960. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.51. 

檢視來源

Wilson KM, Torok MR, Wei B, et al. Detecting biomarkers of secondhand marijuana smoke in young children. Pediatr Res. 2017;81(4):589–592. doi:10.1038/pr.2016.261

檢視來源

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: 50 Years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014. Printed with corrections, January 2014.

檢視來源

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hookahs. cdc.gov. https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/tobacco_industry/hookahs/index.htm. Reviewed January 17, 2018. Accessed August 19, 2019.

檢視來源

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: 50 Years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014. Printed with corrections, January 2014.

檢視來源

危害心臟

 

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: 50 Years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014. Printed with corrections, January 2014.

檢視來源

Wang X, Derakhshandeh R, Liu J, et al. One Minute of Marijuana Secondhand Smoke Exposure Substantially Impairs Vascular Endothelial Function. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;5(8):e003858. Published 2016 Jul 27. doi:10.1161/JAHA.116.003858

檢視來源

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: 50 Years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014. Printed with corrections, January 2014.

檢視來源

無煙空氣,從你開始

第一步先了解哪些政策可保護家人免受居住城市中的二手煙危害

你的城市表現如何?

從下面列表中選擇你的城市,以了解該城市執行無煙政策的力度。*

大麻

加州州法:大麻在任何禁止吸煙的地方同樣被禁止,此外在公共場所也被禁止。若想了解有關社區大麻政策的更多信息,請與當地的健康部門聯絡

American Lung Association in California. : California Local Grades. Sacramento, CA: American Lung Association in California. 2019.

檢視來源

立即採取行動

避免讓家人及社區面臨二手煙風險

瀏覽簡明要訣

獲知要訣!了解如何保護自己及摯愛家人遠離有毒的二手煙。

瀏覽簡明要訣

報吿二手煙問題

請與當地的健康部門聯繫,以報告有關暴露於二手煙的投訴,或者就你所遭遇的問題獲得進一步協助。

寄出電子郵件,努力改變現況

與你的市長聯繫可以創造變革。請輸入你的姓名、選擇你所在的城市,我們會將你與正確的電子郵件連結,以確保你的信件能產生最大影響。

我是
住在
敬愛的 市長

我很擔心空氣中有毒的二手煙量正在迅速增加,這些二手煙是由於吸電子煙、大麻及香煙所造成,而且幾乎隨處都有,如公園、餐廳露台、購物中心、大眾交通車站、休閒娛樂設施及人行道等地方。這個問題隨著加州電子煙及大麻的盛行而更加嚴重。根據《加州成人煙草調查》顯示,暴露於電子煙二手煙的人,在兩年內增加65%以上,而暴露於大麻二手煙的人則幾乎翻倍!您可能已經知道,美國醫務總長說過暴露於二手煙中沒有所謂的安全級別。這就是我鼓勵您對於我們整個社區的公共及私人場所制定嶄新及更嚴格的無煙政策之原因。

身為本市居民,我相信每個人都有權呼吸清淨空氣。但是我發現自己正不斷暴露於有毒的二手煙之中。對於二手煙的任何接觸都可能有害,特別是對於兒童、年長者及殘障人士而言更是如此。暴露於二手煙中的後果非常嚴重,可能會造成致命的健康問題,例如癌症、中風、嚴重的呼吸道疾病及心臟病。

我請求您能展開領導行動,以解決我們城市中日益加升的二手煙問題。我將會全力支持您對於允許吸煙場所的數目限制,並鼓勵您強制執行這些規則。我想我們都應該同意,如此可將我們的城市打造成為一個更健康、更令人愉快並稱之為「家」的地方。

感謝您在我們的社區中實施並支持強有力的無煙政策。身為本市居民,當我知道您已制定法律以確保我及家人免於暴露於有毒二手煙中受到危害,實在對此深感自豪。您的不懈努力為本市贏得美國肺臟協會《煙草控制狀況報告》的A級榮譽。這個評級是由累積不同項目的級別而來,例如指定為無煙場所的數量,以及藉由將電子煙等新產品納入我們社區的二手煙政策內,以強化「煙霧」、「吸煙」或「煙草產品」的定義等,均為評級所依據的因素。

但是,隨著煙草商不斷創造出讓大眾吸煙或使用電子煙的嶄新方式,我們必須隨時保持警惕。單在過去兩年中,全加州暴露於電子煙二手煙及大麻二手煙中的人急劇增多,因此保護這些政策更加日形重要。無煙空氣是一項基本權利,而且通常是大眾理所當然所應該享有的。

恭喜榮獲A級評鑑,並請繼續保持如此絕佳的表現。無煙法律能創造出強健的社區,我將持續支持您在本市不斷擴展並執行無煙政策。

順頌 時祺

New York: Here Is The First State To Ban Flavored E-Cigarettes

檢視來源

有助採取行動的其它資源

了解詳情 - 加州各場所即將無煙

加州各場所即將無煙

加州居民應該在包括休閒時間的一切生活上,都能受到免於二手煙的保護。幸運的是,在本州有許多最具標誌性的活動場所都為遊客提供無煙體驗。

了解詳情 - 加州各場所即將無煙
了解詳情 - 加州引領無煙空間風氣

加州引領無煙空間風氣

在爭取無煙空氣方面,加州有著超凡的進展,但隨著電子煙及大麻使用量的增加,這也代表著我們還有更多必須要做的事。

了解詳情 - 加州引領無煙空間風氣

資料來源